All you need to know about IRAs

Best brokers for IRAs

Most of us imagine our years of retirement playing with grandkids, visiting places we never managed to cross off our bucket list, gardening or spending quality time with friends and family. And playing golf, naturally! For this to turn into reality, you need to act well before the retirement age starts looming on the horizon. When you are younger, saving for retirement may seem like something that can wait a while, but here’s the catch: if you procrastinate on investing in your future, you’ll have to put aside heftier sums later. The best day to start saving is today, so get on that saving wagon and make sure you spend your retirement years as you imagined.

Many people may be at a loss when it comes to saving for the years after they stop working, regardless of the size of their paycheck. The good news is there are a number of investment forms designed for retirement savings and individual retirement accounts (IRAs) stand out as particularly advantageous. Note that this form of investment is only available to US residents, foreign nationals are not allowed to set up IRA accounts.

What is an IRA
What is an IRA?

An IRA is a tax-advantaged savings account for individuals to earmark their retirement savings. IRAs act as tax-deferred or tax-free investment forms that are available at many financial institutions. In a nutshell, if you contribute to an IRA account, you save money for retirement and get tax breaks for doing so.

Note that an IRA is not the same thing as a 401(k). Both help you save for retirement, but 401(k)s are offered by employers, while IRA accounts are opened by individuals.

In order to qualify for an IRA, you have to meet some requirements, the most important being that you have to have earned income that meets Internal Revenue Service (IRS) rules. In other words, you cannot contribute income from investments, inheritance, Social Security benefits, or child support to an IRA account. In 2020, the total contribution to your traditional and Roth IRAs cannot exceed:

  • $6,000 ($7,000 if you're 50 or older), or

  • your taxable compensation for the year, if your compensation is less than the above dollar limit.

Another important IRA limitation concerns early withdrawal, i.e. before you reach retirement age. If you withdraw money from an IRA account before you turn 59½, you are usually subject to an early-withdrawal penalty of 10%. Depending on what type of IRA you have, you may also need to pay income tax on your early withdrawal.

Once IRA account holders turn 59½, they can make so-called qualified distributions, provided they meet qualified distribution criteria set by the IRS. Although you will have to pay some income tax if you have a an IRA account that allows for tax deferral, there will be no penalty for making a qualified distribution.  

As you may have guessed by now, IRAs come in many shapes and sizes and the related requirements may sometimes be confusing or a lot to take in. We have assembled all the key information you need to navigate the IRA universe confidently.

There are four main types of IRAs: traditional, Roth, SEP ( Simplified Employee Pension) and SIMPLE (Savings Incentive Match Plan for Employees). Some lesser known IRAs include backdoor Roth, spousal, self-directed, inherited and rollover. They all have different advantages and limitations. Individual taxpayers can set up either traditional or Roth IRAs, while SEP and SIMPLE IRAs are available to small-business owners and self-employed individuals.

Choosing the right type of IRA primarily depends on your employment status and the size of your paycheck. Your income and whether you have a retirement plan at work will determine the type of IRA you can open and whether your contributions will be tax-deductible. There are income limits for contributing to Roth IRAs and deducting contributions to traditional IRAs. The rules governing maximum contributions and income limits for IRAs change each year.

You cannot keep retirement funds in your account indefinitely. Starting at age 72, holders of IRA accounts (except Roth IRAs) must begin taking required minimum distributions (RMDs) based on the size of their account and life expectancy. To calculate the amount of your RMD, take your account balance as of Dec. 31 of the previous year and divide it by the distribution factor that you can find in the calculation worksheets on the IRS website. For most people, the factor number ranges from 27.4 to 1.9. As a person gets older, the factor number goes down.

Here's an example.

Let's take Cathy, who is 74 years old and has a total of $375,000 in her IRA account. She had a balance of $355,000 on Dec. 31. The formula to calculate the required minimum distribution is: 

RMD = $355,000 ÷ 22.9 = $15,502.18

So Cathy has to withdraw at least $15,502.18. 

Failure to take RMDs may result in a tax penalty equal to 50% of the amount of the required distribution.

What is an IRA
What are the benefits of having an IRA?

As the old adage goes: there is no time like the present. The only control you have over tomorrow is the action you take today. Even though it makes rational and mathematical sense to start saving early, doing so is not always easy. The good news is that the instinct to save grows the longer you do it and at one point it becomes second nature.

Opening an IRA account will likely save you many financial headaches once you retire. It is also worth remembering that long-term investments typically have high returns. Here are the key reasons why setting up an IRA account is the responsible and financially rational thing to do: 

Tax deductions/ Deferred taxes

Who would not like a smaller tax bill? With a traditional IRA account, you may be able to deduct your contributions, which in turn reduces your tax bill in the year you contribute. In addition, you will not have to pay income taxes until you withdraw the money in retirement. If you think that a lower tax rate will apply to you in retirement, it makes sense to delay the tax bill until then. Your modified adjusted gross income (MAGI) and whether you have a retirement plan at work will determine if and how much you can contribute to a Roth IRA and whether you can deduct your traditional IRA contributions.

Tax deductions for IRA account holders covered by a retirement plan at work
Filing status MAGI amount in 2020 Amount of tax deduction

Single or head of household

$65,000 or less

Full deduction up to the amount of your contribution limit
more than $65,000 but less than $75,000 Partial deduction
$75,000 or more No deduction

Married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er)

$104,000 or less Full deduction up to the amount of your contribution limit
more than $104,000 but less than $124,000 Partial deduction
$124,000 or more No deduction
Married filing separately  less than $10,000 Partial deduction
$10,000 or more No deduction

Note: If you file separately and did not live with your spouse at any time during the year, your IRA deduction is determined under the "single" filing status.

Tax deductions for IRA account holders NOT covered by a retirement plan at work

Filing status MAGI amount in 2020 Amount of tax deduction
Single, head of household, or qualifying widow(er) Any amount Full deduction up to the amount of your contribution limit
Married filing jointly or separately with a spouse who is not covered by a plan at work Any amount Full deduction up to the amount of your contribution limit

Married filing jointly with a spouse who is covered by a plan at work

$196,000 or less Full deduction up to the amount of your contribution limit
more than $196,000 but less than $206,000 Partial deduction
$206,000 or more No decudtion
Married filing separately with a spouse who is covered by a plan at work $10,000 or more No deduction

Note:  If you file separately and did not live with your spouse at any time during the year, your IRA deduction is determined under the "single" filing status.

With a Roth IRA, you are not entitled to deduct your contributions, but your investments grow tax-free and you can withdraw money tax-free in retirement. Moreover, you might be eligible to take Saver's Credit for contributing to an IRA. SEP and SIMPLE IRA plan contributions are deductible, but these can be subject to slightly different rules.

Compounding returns

If Mary and John put the same amount of money away each year ($5,000), earn the same return on their investments (6% annually) and stop saving upon retirement at the same age (67), one will end up with nearly twice as much money just by starting at 22 instead of 32. Put another way: Mary, who started saving 10 years earlier, will have about $500,000 more at retirement. It is that simple. The longer you contribute to your retirement savings, the more they will grow with income from interest, dividends and capital gains, which compound each year without taxes nipping away at it.

Moreover, do not forget the amazing power of tax-deferred savings. When you earn returns on funds that would have otherwise been paid in taxes, your money grows faster. Note that the higher the earnings rate, the more tax-deferral works to your benefit.

Saver’s Credit

Want to trim the costs of your retirement plan? There’s a way you may be able to do it. The retirement savings contribution credit, or Saver’s Credit, helps eligible taxpayers offset the cost of saving for retirement. It is primarily available for mid- and low-income taxpayers who save for retirement. If you qualify for Saver’s Credit, you may be able to take a tax credit for making eligible contributions to your IRA or employer-sponsored retirement plan. Since 2018, you may also be eligible for a credit for contributions to your Achieving a Better Life Experience (ABLE) account provided you are the designated beneficiary.

Who is eligible for Saver’s Credit? People aged 18 or older, who are not full-time students and are not claimed as a dependent on another person’s return. The amount of the credit is 50%, 20% or 10% of your retirement plan or IRA account contributions depending on your adjusted gross income. Even though the IRS caps the credit at $1,000 ($2,000 if married and filing jointly), it is well worth applying for it as it is better than a tax deduction. While a tax deduction reduces the amount of your income that is subject to taxes, a tax credit reduces your actual tax bill with the same amount.

Dollar-cost averaging

As with most long-term savings, contributions to an IRA account can help reduce the impact of market and asset price volatility via dollar-cost averaging. What exactly is this? Dollar-cost averaging is a strategy used by investors whereby they space out their stock or fund purchases at regular intervals and in roughly equal amounts, thus ensuring that the assets are not purchased at a high point for prices. As the IRA requires monthly contributions, the price of a given asset will likely vary each time the investments are made. Dollar-cost averaging also shelters you from dumping a considerable amount of your money into a poorly timed investment when prices are skyrocketing and it also takes emotion out of investment-related decisions.

What is an IRA
How to open an IRA?

You can open an IRA with an institution that has received IRS approval to offer these accounts. Such institutions are banks, brokerages, federally insured credit unions as well as savings and loan associations. Before you choose a service provider, ask yourself how involved you want to be in the management of your IRA.

Most individual investors set up their IRAs with brokers as this allows them to invest in a wider range of financial instruments. IRAs opened at banks generally offer Certificates of Deposit and savings accounts, which typically yield lower returns.

Setting up a traditional or Roth IRA with a broker will usually allow you to invest in common securities like stocks, bonds, certificates of deposit, and mutual or exchange-traded funds (ETFs). If you open a self-directed IRA (traditional or Roth), you can choose from a wider array of investments. As the name suggests, if you hold a self-directed IRA account, you will be making all the investment decisions and will gain access to a broader selection of assets, including precious metals, commodities, private placements, limited partnerships, tax lien certificates, real estate and other sorts of alternative investments. In other words, you will directly manage the money in your IRA account even though a custodian or trustee administers the account. In order to open a self-directed IRA, you will need to find a qualified IRA custodian (i.e. financial institution) that offers this type of account. Bear in mind that not all custodians offer the same range of services; if you are after a specific asset (i.e. oil futures), make sure it is available in the custodian’s portfolio of investments.

For a long-term goal like retirement, stocks and bonds are generally perceived as a reasonable choice because of their higher historical returns. 

You can never be too old to start an IRA. The Setting Every Community Up for Retirement Enhancement (SECURE) Act of 2019 eliminated the age limit of when a person can contribute to an IRA, which previously had been 70½. A person of any age with earned income can now open and maintain an IRA. Should you want to set up multiple IRA accounts, go for it. There is no limit on the number of IRA accounts a person can set up, however, the annual contribution caps still apply. In other words, if you open a traditional and a Roth IRA account, you can contribute no more than $6,000 combined (or $7,000 if you are aged 50 or older).

Here is another fact worth bearing in mind. Most pre-retirement payments you receive from a retirement plan or an IRA can be rolled over by depositing the payment in another retirement plan or IRA within 60 days. You can roll over all or part of any distribution from your IRA except the required minimum distribution or any distribution of excess contributions and related earnings. As of 2015, you can make only one rollover from an IRA to another (or the same) IRA in any 12-month period, regardless of the number of IRAs you own. This limit does not apply to:

  • rollovers from traditional IRAs to Roth IRAs (conversions)

  • trustee-to-trustee transfers to another IRA

  • IRA-to-plan rollovers

  • plan-to-IRA rollovers

  • plan-to-plan rollovers.

What is an IRA
Types of IRA accounts

Most people open one of the following IRA accounts:

Although all four account types serve the same overall purpose (retirement saving), your employment status and annual paycheck will largely determine which account best suits you. Individual taxpayers can open either traditional or Roth IRAs, while small-business owners and self-employed individuals set up SEP and SIMPLE IRAs.

Compare IRA accounts
IRA type Contribution limit in 2020 Tax deduction Tax-free distribution Required minimum distribution after the age of 70½
Traditional $6,000; $7,000 if aged 50 or older Yes, income, filing status and employer retirement plan coverage determine the amount of the deduction No Yes
Roth $6,000; $7,000 if aged 50 or older No Yes No
SEP The lesser of 25% of compensation or $57,000

Deductions for employee contributions limited to the lesser of your total contributions or 25% of employees’ compensation

No Yes
Self-employed individuals can calculate the amount of deduction based on a special formula
SIMPLE $13,500; $16,500 if aged 50 or older

Contributions made to employees’ SIMPLE IRAs are tax deductible

No Yes
Self-employed individuals allowed to  deduct their own contributions

Traditional IRA

One of the most popular IRA accounts (in addition to the Roth), a traditional IRA comes without an income cap. Anyone can contribute to a traditional IRA, regardless of their income. If you hold a traditional IRA, you may be able to deduct the contributions, which translates into a smaller tax bill. The amount you can deduct depends on your income or if you or your spouse have access to a retirement plan at work (see detailed breakdown in the section entitled What are the benefits of having an IRA account?). In a traditional IRA account, your money grows tax-deferred as you will only pay income taxes when you withdraw the money from your account. In certain cases, you can make qualified distributions while still working if you meet the conditions set forth by the IRS for such withdrawals. 

Roth IRA 

In contrast to the traditional IRA, a Roth IRA comes with an income cap. The limit, determined on the basis of the account owner’s MAGI and filing status, prevents high income earners from setting up a Roth IRA (see backdoor Roth for ways to circumvent this.)

Annual contribution limits to Roth IRA accounts
Filing status  2020 MAGI Annual contribution limit
Single, head of household or married filing separately (you did not live with your spouse at any time during the year) Less than $124,000 $6,000 ($7,000 if 50 or older)
$124,000 up to $139,000 Reduced contribution*
More than $139,000 No contribution
Married filing jointly or qualifying widow(er) Less than $196,000 $6,000 ($7,000 if 50 or older)
$196,000 up to $206,000 Reduced contribution*
More than $206,000 No contribution
Married filing separately and you lived with your spouse at any time during the year Less than $10,000 Reduced contribution*
More than $10,000 No contribution

*Visit this IRS page for guidance on how to calculate the reduction.

Another notable difference is that you cannot deduct the contributions to a Roth IRA. On the plus side, your money grows tax-free as you never pay taxes on the returns in your account and you can withdraw the funds tax-free in retirement. In terms of withdrawal, the rules governing Roth accounts are more flexible: you can take out the money you contributed to a Roth at any time without penalty. Note, however, that there are rules about early withdrawals of investment earnings and other transferred funds based on your age and how long you have owned the account. Your age, the period since you have opened the account and other conditions will also determine whether you can make qualified distributions from your Roth account.

Key differences between Roth and traditional IRA accounts
Type of IRA Income Required minimum distribution Early withdrawal
Traditional No limit You must take RMDs starting at the age of 72

Penalty-free withdrawals starting at age 59½; withdrawals subject to taxes

Roth Income cap  No required RMDs No tax or penalty for early withdrawal of contributions


The simplified employee pension, or SEP IRA, is designed for self-employed individuals, including independent contractors, and freelancers as well as small-business owners. These accounts also allow tax deduction on contributions while withdrawals in retirement are taxed at regular income tax rates. Business owners, who set up SEP IRAs for their employees are required to contribute the same amount as they put in their own account but they can deduct the contributions. In general, company employees are not allowed to contribute to their accounts and the IRS taxes their withdrawals as income. Contributions to SEP IRA accounts are capped at 25% of compensation or $57,000, whichever is less. That is much higher than the $6,000 limit for traditional IRAs.  


The savings incentive match plan for employees, or SIMPLE IRA, is intended for small businesses with about 100 employees and self-employed individuals. In contrast to SEP IRAs, employees can make contributions to their accounts, while the employer is required to make contributions as well. All contributions to SIMPLE IRAs are tax-deductible, which could potentially push the business or employee into a lower tax bracket. SIMPLE IRAs adhere to the same taxation rules for withdrawal as traditional IRAs. Currently, the SIMPLE IRA employee contribution limit is $13,500 plus an extra $3,000 catch-up contribution allowed for savers aged 50 and above.


Other types of IRAs

Backdoor Roth

A backdoor Roth IRA allows taxpayers to set up a regular Roth IRA account even if their income exceeds the limit. With a little bit of administrative work and settling a tax bill, you can become the proud owner of a Roth IRA regardless of your annual paycheck. The process is rather simple:

  • Open a traditional IRA

  • Convert it to a Roth IRA

  • Pay any due taxes

 Here is one thing to keep in mind. The conversion needs to be done by way of the following methods:

  • rollover, where you deposit the money received from your traditional IRA into the Roth within 60 days, or

  • trustee-to-trustee transfer, where the institution managing your IRA transfers the money directly to your Roth IRA provider, or

  • same trustee transfer, where your funds are transferred from your traditional IRA to the Roth at the same financial institution.

Spousal IRA

As the name suggests, this type allows spouses, who do not have an income to save for retirement, based on their working spouse’s income. The spousal IRA is owned by the non-working spouse and the maximum contribution is $6,000 ($7,000 if you are 50 or older). The total contributions of both spouses to each of their IRAs cannot exceed the working spouse’s earned income.

Self-directed IRA

In technical terms, almost all IRAs are self-directed in the sense that account holders can choose their own investments. With a “self-directed” IRA, you can put your money in alternative investments such as real estate or a privately-held company. Self-directed IRAs – which can be either a traditional or a Roth - can be opened with a custodian that offers this type of accounts, typically the largest and most well-known brokers.

Rollover IRA

A rollover IRA is a great way for transferring your funds from a 401(k) or other retirement plan into an IRA. Say you decide to leave your job. A rollover IRA will keep your retirement money safe from taxes if you do the process correctly. After selecting the type of IRA account you want to open (provided you do not already have one) and the provider, request your former employer to transfer your savings to the new account provider or to send a check for your account balance. Make sure that the process is a “direct rollover,” i.e. the money never touches your hands.

What is an IRA
Best brokers for IRAs

If you're looking to open your first IRA account or want to make sure that you have chosen the right service provider, we recommend you choose one of the following five brokers, which all offer IRA accounts. We tested all of them and took into consideration a range of aspects when compiling the ranking: 

  • Firstrade
  • E*Trade
  • Charles Schwab
  • Fidelity
  • TD Ameritrade 

The primary factors we reviewed when assessing these brokers were the various types of fees they charge and their long-term product offering, which is essential for retirement savings. Safety is also of key importance, but since we recommend only safe brokers, you don't have to worry about this. 

Best brokers for IRAs - Fees overview
  Firstrade E*TRADE Charles Schwab Fidelity TD Ameritrade
US stock $0.0 $0.0 $0.0 $0.0 $0.0
Mutual fund $0.0 $20.0 $24.8 $37.5 $50.0
US Treasury bond $40.0 $0.0 $0.0 $0.0 $0.0


Best brokers for IRAs - Product selection

  Firstrade E*TRADE Charles Schwab Fidelity TD Ameritrade
Stock markets (#) 5 5 4 22 5
Fund providers (#) 420 520 600 560 740
Bonds (#) 38,500 88,000 60,000 108,000 40,000

What is an IRA
FAQ - the bottom line on IRAs

Is an IRA right for me? 

If you have earned income and want to set aside money for your retirement, opening a retirement account like an IRA is generally a wise choice. Considering that long-term investments usually yield a higher return and some IRA accounts allow for tax deduction and tax deferral, plus the returns on your investments compound over the years, the answer in our opinion is a solid yes. If your contributions aren't tax deductible in a traditional IRA but you have earned income that you want to invest, you should consider maxing out a Roth IRA before opening a regular brokerage account. The reason is that you can withdraw contributions without penalties any time from a Roth account.

How much can I contribute to my IRA? 

In order to be eligible for an IRA you must have earned income that is in line with Internal Revenue Service (IRS) rules. You cannot make IRA contributions from investments, inheritance, Social Security benefits, or child support. The IRS sets contribution limits for IRA accounts each year that depend on the size of your paycheck and filing status, among other factors. Bear in mind that these limits apply to the combined contribution of all your IRA accounts.

 When can I make withdrawals from my IRA account?

Generally speaking, it is best to leave your savings in your IRA account until you retire. If, however, you need to withdraw funds, you will find that rules vary depending on the type of your IRA account. If you are under 59 ½ and withdraw money from a traditional IRA, you'll have to pay a 10% penalty on the amount you withdraw in addition to the income tax you'll owe on your withdrawal. With a Roth IRA, you may withdraw your contributions without a penalty as long as you do not withdraw any earnings on your investments or funds rolled over from a traditional IRA. If you do, expect a penalty of 10%. If you're 59 ½ or older, you are usually entitled to penalty-free withdrawals from any IRA. Note that you will have to pay income tax if it is a traditional IRA. In the case of Roth IRAs, it must be at least five years since you first began contributing. If you converted a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA, you cannot withdraw funds penalty-free until at least five years after the conversion. Qualified distributions allow you to withdraw funds from your IRA account while still working, but you will have to meet a set of criteria to be able to do so.  

What is the difference between a traditional and a Roth IRA?

Choosing between one or the other often comes down to how much you’re making now and how much you expect to earn once you stop working. The most important difference between a Roth and a traditional IRA lies in taxes. With a traditional IRA, your contributions are tax-deductible in the year they are made, but you pay income tax at withdrawal. The Roth does not allow you to deduct taxes but you can withdraw your money in retirement tax free. If you think you will be in a higher tax bracket in retirement, choosing a Roth IRA is the sensible option. If you expect lower rates in retirement, go for a traditional IRA and its upfront tax advantage. If you’re at the peak of your career and in one of the higher tax brackets, your tax rate is more than likely to decline in retirement. In this case, you’re probably better off contributing to a traditional retirement account. 

What is a SEP IRA?

The simplified employee pension, or SEP IRA, is a retirement savings account for self-employed individuals and small-business owners. SEP IRA accounts allow tax deduction on contributions while withdrawals in retirement are taxed at regular income tax rates. Business owners who set up SEP IRAs for their employees are required to contribute the same amount as they put in their own account but they can deduct the contributions. In general, company employees are not allowed to contribute to their accounts and the IRS taxes their withdrawals as income. Contributions to SEP IRA accounts are capped at 25% of compensation or $57,000, whichever is less. 

What is the difference between an IRA account and a 401(k) plan?

 Although both are great ways for retirement saving in a tax-efficient way, there are a number of key differences between a 401(k) plan and an IRA. One of the most prominent distinctions is that 401(k) plans are established by employers while IRA accounts are set up by individual taxpayers. In other words, you can only have a 401(k) if your employer offers it to you as a benefit. On the up side, many employers match a portion of employee contributions, often up to 6 percent of your total salary.  

Can I have both an IRA account and a 401(k) plan?

 The short answer is yes! If you have a 401(k) plan at work, make sure you use it. You may be leaving free dollars on the table if you don’t. Provided your income and saving habits allow for it, open an IRA account as well. Trust us, you will be grateful for it after you retire. It makes financial sense to first contribute enough to your 401(k) to max out the company match, then divert funds to your IRA account(s), trying to maximize those as well.

 How to transfer a 401(k) to an IRA account?

 If you want to move your 401(k) savings to an IRA account, the process is rather simple. It’s called a rollover and this is how it’s done:

  • Choose an IRA service provider and a type of IRA account
  • If you already have an IRA, skip the first step (though you can open an additional IRA to your existing one and use that for the rollover)
  • Have your (former) employer transfer the savings to your IRA account or send a check for your account balance (in the latter case you will have to deposit the funds in your IRA account within 60 days to avoid a tax bill)
  • Choose the investments for your IRA account

Bear in mind that IRA contribution limits do not apply to a rollover but required minimum distributions may take effect.

What is a self-directed IRA?

A self-directed IRA is an individual retirement savings account that gives you a freer hand to manage your savings and a greater diversification of financial assets to invest in. If you have an IRA account that is not self-directed, your choice of investments is usually limited to stocks, bonds, exchange-traded and mutual funds (or even less if your IRA is managed by a bank). A self-directed IRA allows you to invest in alternative assets, such as limited partnerships, commodities, real estate and more.

 What happens if I have a Roth IRA and my income becomes too high?

Roth IRAs have an income limit and failing to pay attention to the income cap has its consequences. If you over-contribute to a Roth IRA, you’ll have to withdraw the excess and any earnings on it. Otherwise, you will have to pay a 6% tax on ineligible contributions in addition to a 10% early withdrawal penalty if you’re younger than 59.5. If you absolutely hit the cap, consult a professional on how to open a backdoor Roth.

Author of this article

Edith Balázs

Author of this article

Edith is an experienced financial journalist having worked for 20+ years as a correspondent for Bloomberg, Dow Jones and The Wall Street Journal covering macroeconomics, stock, currency and fixed-income markets. She holds a Master's degree in American Studies and Journalism.

Edith Balázs

Senior Editor

Edith is an experienced financial journalist having worked for 20+ years as a correspondent for Bloomberg, Dow Jones and The Wall Street Journal covering macroeconomics, stock, currency and fixed-income markets. She holds a Master's degree in American Studies and Journalism.

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Best brokers for IRAs

Firstrade E*TRADE