Best brokers for beginners in 2019

Dec 2018
Top 2 brokers for European beginners
eToro DEGIRO
Best brokers for beginners in 2019

To find the best online brokers for beginners in 2019, we went ahead and did the research for you. We made interviews with newbies, without any trading experience. We tested 20 brokers and five made it to the top. They confirmed these top five. And now without further ado...

The best online brokers for beginners in 2019 are:

  1. Robinhood is the best broker for beginners in 2019. Only for US and Australian clients. Great mobile app and zero fees.
  2. eToro is the runner-up, best social trading experience, and a great trading platform. eToro is not for US clients.
  3. Degiro is placed number three, the best discount broker. Low fees, a good platform.
  4. Swissquote is number four, good educational tools, a good platform. Pricey.
  5. tastyworks made it to the best broker for beginner list. It has amazing educational courses and a super live channel. Mostly for options trading.

Best brokers for beginners in 2019
Broker Info Best in
#1 US zero-fee discount broker
Best for beginners
#2 Global social trading broker
Best social trading
#3 Dutch discount broker
Best discount broker
#4 Swiss investment bank
Best for funds
#5 US options and stockbroker
Best for options

All five brokers are considered safe. They are regulated by top-tier regulators from the UK, US, Switzerland, or the Netherlands.

What makes a good broker for beginners? Two things above all: keep it simple and guide the client. The trading platform needs to be clean, and understandable. Fair fees are also important. Have great educational tools, like a demo account, provide webinars or coursesIt must be easy to open an account and to deposit.

Easy to list, but hard to figure it out. We are testing brokers along ~100 criteria with real accounts and real money. We know what's up.

Not sure which broker? For a tailored recommendation, check out the broker finder tool. You can enter your country and it will show only the relevant brokers. Want more details? Compare brokers with this detailed comparison table.

Boring, but important stuff: eToro, Degiro and Swissquote offer CFD products. They are complex and very risky, thus not suitable for everyone. You can easily lose all of your invested money. If you don't have clue what a CFD is, start with these CFD trading tips

And now, let's see the best online brokers for beginners in 2019 one by one. Starting with the winner, Robinhood.

#1 Best broker for beginners
Robinhood

4.1 4 stars
Best for beginners
Robinhood logo

Robinhood is a US zero-fee or discount broker established in 2013. If you don't know what discount broker means, read this overview about the best discount brokers in 2018.

Robinhood is considered safe because it is supervised by FINRA, the US regulator and provides a maximum of $500,000 investor protection including a $250,000 limit for cash.

Recommended for beginners and buy and hold investors focusing on the US stock market.

Pros
  • Commission-free US stock trading
  • Great mobile and web trading platforms
  • Fast and fully digital account opening
Cons
  • Available only for US and Australian clients
  • Weak customer support
  • Limited product portfolio

Visit broker

#1 Robinhood
Web trading platform 5 stars

Robinhood provides a well-designed and user-friendly web trading platform.

Pros
  • Clear fee report
  • User-friendly
  • Looks nice
Cons
  • Customizability is missing

Best brokers for beginners - Robinhood trading platform

Robinhood trading platforms
Web platform score5 stars4 stars4 stars3 stars4 stars
Mobile platform score5 stars5 stars4 stars3 stars3 stars
Desktop platform score----3 stars

More Visit broker

#1 Robinhood
Fees 4 stars

US stock trading is free at Robinhood. There are no inactivity fee and withdrawal fees. On the flip side, Robinhood has really high commission for non-US stocks.

Pros
  • No inactivity fee
  • No withdrawal fee
  • Commission-free US stock trading
Cons
  • High financing rate
  • High trading fees of non-US stocks

Robinhood fees
Apple trading fee$0.0$1.6$1.4$30.2$5.2
Vodafone trading fee$100.0$2.6$11.3$73.1-
EURUSD benchmark fee-$19.1-$18.9-

All spreads, commissions and financing rate for opening a position, holding for a week, and closing.
Position sizes: $2k for stocks, and $20k for FX

More Visit broker

#1 Robinhood
Education 0 stars

Robinhood does not provide education tools or a demo account.

Pros
None
Cons
  • No trading platform tutorial videos
  • No educational videos
  • No demo account

More Visit broker

#1 Robinhood
Account opening 5 stars

Robinhood account opening is seamless and fully digital. Your account will be opened within a day. On the flip side, the account opening is only available for US and Australian clients.

Pros
  • Fast account opening
  • Account opening fully digital
  • No minimum account balance
  • User-friendly
Cons
  • It is only availalbe for the US and the Australian clients

Robinhood minimum deposit and time to open an account
Minimum deposit$0$200$0$0$0
Time to open account1 day1 day1 day1 day1-3 days

More Visit broker

#1 Robinhood
Deposit and withdrawal 3 stars

Robinhood deposit and withdrawal are very easy and user-friendly. On the flip side, you can only use bank transfer.

Pros
  • Free deposit
  • User-friendly
  • Instant deposit up to $1,000 per week
Cons
  • Credit/Debit card deposit and withdrawal not available
  • Lengthy deposit if you don't use the instant deposit

Robinhood withdrawal fee and options
Bank TransferYesYesYesYesYes
Credit/Debit cardNoYesNoNoNo
Electronic walletsNoYesNoNoNo
Withdrawal fee$0$25$0$10$45

More Visit broker

#1 Robinhood
Verdict

Robinhood fees are great. US stocks trading is commission-free, and there is no withdrawal or inactivity fee. Robinhood has awesome, user-friendly mobile and web trading platforms. The account opening is easy, fully digital, and fast.

Robinhood has some drawbacks though. It is available only for US and Australian clients. The customer support is poor, you can only reach them via e-mail and it takes time to get an answer. Most products you can trade with are just from the US market. 

If you want to trade with US stocks for free and prefer an easy-to-use platform, Robinhood is the best choice. 

More Visit broker

#2 Best broker for beginners
eToro

4.4 4 stars
Best social trading
eToro logo

eToro is a well-known fintech startup, an Israeli social trading broker established in 2007. eToro serves UK clients by an FCA regulated entity and Australians by an Australian entity. All other customers are served by a Cypriot entity. eToro is not listed on any exchange, does not disclose its annual report on its site and does not have a bank parent.

eToro is considered safe, because it's UK arm is regulated by a top tier regulator and it is a well known fintech startup.

eToro is primarily a CFD broker. CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage. 65% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider. You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

Recommended for social trading, e.g. following other traders’ trades.

Pros
  • Enjoyable trading platform
  • Social trading experience
  • Seamless account opening
Cons
  • Poor customer service
  • Trading platform outages
  • Limited product range, mostly CFDs

Visit broker

#2 eToro
Web trading platform 4 stars

eToro’s web trading platform is nice looking and easy-to-use. Getting your fee report is a bit of a pain.

Pros
  • User-friendly
  • Looks nice
  • Social trading
Cons
  • No clear fee report available
  • Cannot be customized

Best brokers for beginners - eToro trading platform

eToro trading platforms
Web platform score5 stars4 stars4 stars3 stars4 stars
Mobile platform score5 stars5 stars4 stars3 stars3 stars
Desktop platform score----3 stars

More Visit broker

#2 eToro
Fees 4 stars

eToro's trading fees are low, while non-trading fees are high.

Pros
  • Transparent fee structure
  • Low trading fees
Cons
  • Inactivity fee
  • High financing rate
  • Withdrawal fee
  • High non-trading fees

eToro fees
Apple trading fee$0.0$1.6$1.4$30.2$5.2
Vodafone trading fee$100.0$2.6$11.3$73.1-
EURUSD benchmark fee-$19.1-$18.9-

All spreads, commissions and financing rate for opening a position, holding for a week, and closing.
Position sizes: $2k for stocks, and $20k for FX

More Visit broker

#2 eToro
Education 2 stars

Education is not strong, there are medium quality videos about investing.

Pros
  • Demo account
  • Intro guide to the platform
Cons
  • No educational videos

Best brokers for beginners - eToro education

More Visit broker

#2 eToro
Account opening 5 stars

Account opening is enjoyable and super fast.

Pros
  • Fast account opening
  • No minimum account balance
  • User-friendly
Cons
None

eToro minimum deposit and time to open an account
Minimum deposit$0$200$0$0$0
Time to open account1 day1 day1 day1 day1-3 days

More Visit broker

#2 eToro
Deposit and withdrawal 4 stars

It is easy to deposit with a lot of options, including credit cards. However, there is a withdrawal fee, and only USD accounts are available.

Pros
  • Credit/Debit card deposit and withdrawal available
  • Free deposit
  • User-friendly
Cons
  • Only one account base currency
  • High withdrawal fee

eToro withdrawal fee and options
Bank TransferYesYesYesYesYes
Credit/Debit cardNoYesNoNoNo
Electronic walletsNoYesNoNoNo
Withdrawal fee$0$25$0$10$45

More Visit broker

#2 eToro
Verdict

When looking back, eToro was a bit unreliable in 2017 because of the huge demand for cryptos. It had problems in customer support and the platform sometimes froze. In our latest test eToro improved.

On the plus side, eToro is great for social trading and also good for crypto CFDs, it is a pleasure to use, has a lot of innovative features, and the account opening is spot on. Its trading fees are low.

It has some drawbacks though. Customer service was a letdown, the platform did not work on multiple occasions. Also, it has a tight product range which includes stocks and CFDs. Non-trading fees are high.

To sum up, we recommend eToro for social trading and cheap stock trading.

More Visit broker

#3 Best broker for beginners
DEGIRO

4.6 5 stars
Best discount broker
DEGIRO logo

DEGIRO is a trending Dutch online discount broker. It is privately owned and was established in 2013 by former employees of another brokerage company.

DEGIRO is considered safe as it is regulated by top-tier financial regulators, the Dutch AFM and DNB. It is registered with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Amsterdam under number 34342820.

Recommended for price-sensitive buy and hold investors and traders looking for cheap execution.

Pros
  • One of the lowest fees in the market
  • Broad access to international markets
  • Easy to use web and mobile platform
Cons
  • Limited research and no education
  • Missing forex trading
  • No credit/debit card deposit and withdrawal

Visit broker

#3 DEGIRO
Web trading platform 4 stars

DEGIRO’s web platform is simple and easy to use. Even beginners can easily get around and buy stocks. On the flip side, it can't be well-customized.

Pros
  • Two-step (safe) login
  • User-friendly
  • Looks nice
Cons
  • Limited customizability (for chart, for workspace)
  • No price alerts available

Best brokers for beginners - DEGIRO trading platform

DEGIRO trading platforms
Web platform score5 stars4 stars4 stars3 stars4 stars
Mobile platform score5 stars5 stars4 stars3 stars3 stars
Desktop platform score----3 stars

More Visit broker

#3 DEGIRO
Fees 5 stars

DEGIRO has low trading and non-trading fees. In most asset classes, it is the best in the market. There is one free ETF trading per a month, a great offer for buy and hold investors.

Pros
  • Low fees
  • No withdrawal fee
  • One free ETF trade per month
Cons
  • Yearly service fee for mutual funds
  • Higher trading fees for Asian and smaller European stock exchanges

DEGIRO fees
Apple trading fee$0.0$1.6$1.4$30.2$5.2
Vodafone trading fee$100.0$2.6$11.3$73.1-
EURUSD benchmark fee-$19.1-$18.9-

All spreads, commissions and financing rate for opening a position, holding for a week, and closing.
Position sizes: $2k for stocks, and $20k for FX

More Visit broker

#3 DEGIRO
Education 0 stars

Education and demo account is not provided.

Pros
None
Cons
  • No trading platform tutorial videos
  • No educational videos
  • No demo account

More Visit broker

#3 DEGIRO
Account opening 5 stars

DEGIRO has an easy account opening process and there is no minimum deposit. But the account open takes more days.

Pros
  • Account opening fully digital
  • No minimum account balance
  • User-friendly
Cons
None

DEGIRO minimum deposit and time to open an account
Minimum deposit$0$200$0$0$0
Time to open account1 day1 day1 day1 day1-3 days

More Visit broker

#3 DEGIRO
Deposit and withdrawal 3 stars

DEGIRO deposit and withdrawal are free of charge via bank transfer and SOFORT. On the other hand, you cannot deposit with credit or debit card.

Pros
  • Several account base currencies
  • Free withdrawal
  • Free deposit
Cons
  • Credit/Debit card deposit and withdrawal not available

DEGIRO withdrawal fee and options
Bank TransferYesYesYesYesYes
Credit/Debit cardNoYesNoNoNo
Electronic walletsNoYesNoNoNo
Withdrawal fee$0$25$0$10$45

More Visit broker

#3 DEGIRO
Verdict

DEGIRO is a good choice if you want a simple platform and don’t want to spend a fortune on fees.

It is far cheaper than its big European competitors and only Interactive Brokers can compete with DEGIRO fees. DEGIRO also has great access to international markets and trading products.

However, cheapness comes with some shortfalls. Education and research tools are missing or basic, there is no forex trading and limited deposit and withdrawal options.

All in all, it is a great online broker. As there is no minimum deposit and no inactivity fee, feel free to try it out.

More Visit broker

#4 Best broker for beginners
Swissquote

4.5 5 stars
Best for funds
Swissquote logo

Swissquote is a Swiss investment bank, established in 1996. It has two main arms: 

The Swiss arm for stocks, funds, options, and futures

The UK arm for CFDs, and FX

Formally, Swissquote Bank Ltd is based in Switzerland and regulated by FINMA, the Swiss financial regulator. This one offers stocks, funds, bonds, futures and options. The other, Swissquote Ltd is UK based, regulated by the FCA, the UK financial regulator, and offers CFDs and FX.

Swissquote is considered safe because Swissquote Bank Ltd has a banking license, it is listed on the Swiss stock exchange, and discloses detailed financials regularly.  

For clarity, we will call the Switzerland Swissquote for stocks "Swissquote (CH)", and the UK Swissquote for CFDs and FX "SwissquoteForex (UK)".

Recommended for affluent investors valuing safety and being ok with higher fees.

Pros
  • Extensive market and product access
  • High investor protection amount
  • Digital account opening
Cons
  • High trading fees
  • Overcomplicated trading platform
  • Better part of the research not free

Visit broker

#4 Swissquote
Web trading platform 3 stars

The Swissquote (CH) platform has a lot of functions, even too many. It can get complicated. SwissquoteForex (UK)' MetaTrader 4 is a well thought out platform.

Pros
  • Two-step (safe) login
  • Price alerts available
  • Available in more languages
Cons
  • Limited order types
  • Bad search function

Best brokers for beginners - Swissquote trading platform

Swissquote trading platforms
Web platform score5 stars4 stars4 stars3 stars4 stars
Mobile platform score5 stars5 stars4 stars3 stars3 stars
Desktop platform score----3 stars

More Visit broker

#4 Swissquote
Fees 2 stars

Swissquote has high trading fees and average non-trading fees. As a plus, there is no inactivity fee.

Pros
  • No inactivity fee
Cons
  • High trading fees
  • Withdrawal fee

Swissquote fees
Apple trading fee$0.0$1.6$1.4$30.2$5.2
Vodafone trading fee$100.0$2.6$11.3$73.1-
EURUSD benchmark fee-$19.1-$18.9-

All spreads, commissions and financing rate for opening a position, holding for a week, and closing.
Position sizes: $2k for stocks, and $20k for FX

More Visit broker

#4 Swissquote
Education 5 stars

Swissquote provides understandable and professional educational videos, webinars, and seminars.

Pros
  • Trading platform tutorial videos
  • Easy to understand
  • Demo account
Cons
None

Best brokers for beginners - Swissquote education

More Visit broker

#4 Swissquote
Account opening 5 stars

Swissquote offers a fast, easy, and fully digital account opening. Also, there is no minimum account balance requirement.

Pros
  • Fast account opening
  • Account opening fully digital
  • No minimum account balance
Cons
  • Video identification of documents may not be available for some locations

Swissquote minimum deposit and time to open an account
Minimum deposit$0$200$0$0$0
Time to open account1 day1 day1 day1 day1-3 days

More Visit broker

#4 Swissquote
Deposit and withdrawal 4 stars

The depsoit is fast and user-friendly. On the flip side, you can only withdraw by bank transfer.

Pros
  • Several account base currencies
  • Free deposit
  • Credit/Debit card deposit
Cons
  • Credit card withdrawal is not available
  • Withdrawal is not user-friendly

Swissquote withdrawal fee and options
Bank TransferYesYesYesYesYes
Credit/Debit cardNoYesNoNoNo
Electronic walletsNoYesNoNoNo
Withdrawal fee$0$25$0$10$45

More Visit broker

#4 Swissquote
Verdict

Swissquote has a rock solid background. It is Swiss, it is listed, it is a bank. It has two entities, one in the UK and one in Switzerland. If you open an account at the London-based entity, you can trade with forex and CFDs, while the Swiss entity gives you access to a wide range of asset classes from stocks to options.

Swissquote has an easy and fast account opening. We really liked its market and product coverage. There are lot of stocks, mutual funds, and a lot of different type of products from bonds to cryptos.

However, nothing comes for free. The trading fees are relatively high. 

All in all, Swissquote is a great provider. As there is no minimum deposit requirements and no inactivity fee, feel free to try it out.

More Visit broker

#5 Best broker for beginners
Tastyworks

4.5 5 stars
Best for options
Tastyworks logo

tastyworks is a young, upcoming US broker focusing on options trading.

The people behind tastyworks are proven experts who built thinkorswim, now operated by TD Ameritrade.  tastyworks is privately owned, established in 2017 and headquartered in Chicago.

tastyworks is considered safe as it is regulated by a top-tier regulator, the US FINRA.

Recommended for price sensitive options and stock traders focusing on the US.

Pros
  • Low options trading fees
  • Great education materials
  • Very good customer service
Cons
  • Only US options, futures, and stocks
  • Can be intimidating for beginners
  • Trading platforms have some bugs

Visit broker

#5 Tastyworks
Web trading platform 4 stars

Tastyworks web trading platform feels like entering the cockpit of a plane. It looks organized, but also complicated at first sight.

Pros
  • Good search function
  • Clear fee report
  • Great options trading panel with embedded strategies
Cons
  • Limited customizability (for chart, for workspace)
  • Can be intimidating for beginners

Best brokers for beginners - Tastyworks trading platform

Tastyworks trading platforms
Web platform score5 stars4 stars4 stars3 stars4 stars
Mobile platform score5 stars5 stars4 stars3 stars3 stars
Desktop platform score----3 stars

More Visit broker

#5 Tastyworks
Fees 4 stars

tastyworks has low trading fees and average non-trading fees. Its options fees are very low as well.

Pros
  • No inactivity fee
  • Transparent fee structure
  • Low trading fees
Cons
  • High financing rate
  • Withdrawal fee

Tastyworks fees
Apple trading fee$0.0$1.6$1.4$30.2$5.2
Vodafone trading fee$100.0$2.6$11.3$73.1-
EURUSD benchmark fee-$19.1-$18.9-

All spreads, commissions and financing rate for opening a position, holding for a week, and closing.
Position sizes: $2k for stocks, and $20k for FX

More Visit broker

#5 Tastyworks
Education 5 stars

tastyworks has superb educational materials on options trading. Great quality and very enjoyable. However, there is no demo account.

Pros
  • Educational videos
  • Easy to understand
  • Good production quality
Cons
  • No demo account

Best brokers for beginners - Tastyworks education

More Visit broker

#5 Tastyworks
Account opening 4 stars

tastyworks account opening is user-friendly and fully digital. You can open your account without a required minimum. On the flip side, it can be more days until your account is approved.

Pros
  • Account opening fully digital
  • No minimum account balance
  • User-friendly
Cons
  • Can take 3 business days

Tastyworks minimum deposit and time to open an account
Minimum deposit$0$200$0$0$0
Time to open account1 day1 day1 day1 day1-3 days

More Visit broker

#5 Tastyworks
Deposit and withdrawal 2 stars

tastyworks deposit and withdrawal can be improved. The account can be opened only in USD. Also, non-US citizens can only use bank transfer, and there is high withdrawal fee.

Pros
  • Free deposit
  • User-friendly
Cons
  • Only one account base currency
  • Credit/Debit card deposit and withdrawal not available
  • High withdrawal fee

Tastyworks withdrawal fee and options
Bank TransferYesYesYesYesYes
Credit/Debit cardNoYesNoNoNo
Electronic walletsNoYesNoNoNo
Withdrawal fee$0$25$0$10$45

More Visit broker

#5 Tastyworks
Verdict

tastyworks is an excellent broker for options trading. It could be a bit complicated if you want to trade stocks only.  

tastyworks is a US broker, hence investor protection scheme is excellent. Options fees are very low, among the bests. Its trading platform is aimed at experienced options traders, it can be intimidating for starters.

As there is no minimum deposit, no inactivity or monthly fee, and the account open is seamless, feel free to try it.

 

More Visit broker

Best brokers for beginners
What makes a great broker for beginners

Now you know the best best brokers for beginners. Curious how we came up with this list? Let's go through two points. Are they safe? How did we compile the list?

Are these brokers safe?

Yes, they are considered safe. You can be sure none of them is a scam. They are regulated by top-tier regulators. Some of them are also listed on an exchange, and some have a banking background.

However, also brokerage companies can go down. Remember Lehman Brothers? In these cases, it is important to know what happens with your securities and cash. These are usually held in segregated accounts, so even in case of a broker bankruptcy, you are safe.

If everything goes very bad and for example, the broker steals your assets, then you have a last resort, the compensation fund of the country where the broker is regulated. 

How did Brokerchooser pick the best brokers for beginners?

At Brokerchooser we test online brokers along ~100 criteria, with a real account and real money. Not to overwhelm you we list the five most important criteria for brokers for beginners:

5 most important criteria for the best brokers for beginners in 2019
1. Web trading platform A user-friendly and well-equipped trading platform can significantly increase your trading comfort.
2. Fees The overall cost of a typical trade can be 10-15 times higher at one broker compared to another. Worth to check the fees.
3. Education You are not familiar with concepts like spread or leverage? Good educational tools help you understand the basics of trading.
4. Account opening Some online brokers require a minimum to invest, others don't set a minimal first-time deposit. Check out what the best online brokers require.
5. Deposit and withdrawal Withdrawing money from your account can be 5 times longer and more expensive at one broker compared to another.

Best brokers for beginners
Start your learning

When you are a beginner the best way to start your journey is to learn.

Find below some very useful learning materials to start with.

If you are considering starting.  Check our learning page, a lot of great materials. You can learn about the pros and cons of managing your savings on your own or the difference between trading and investing. Also go to the learn section if you want to figure out whether you can open a foreign account. 

For beginner buy and hold investors we recommend to read the how to buy shares. Have a six-step approach on how to buy shares online.

For beginners who want to learn to trade, we can provide even more. Robert, a professional trader, wrote on how to become a trader. Most of the beginner traders start with forex. If you don't anything about this topic, start with the forex 101. The CFDs also have become very popular. They are very risky. Start learning about CFDs with this CFD greenhorn and continue with the pros and cons of CFD trading.

Cryptos were among the hottest topics in 2017. Also super risky. Tibor dug in into it and found out the safest ways to invest in Bitcoin. A very interesting read, highly recommended if you are considering cryptos.

When more experienced and starting to explore futures options, you should definitely check out Gery's article on the topic.

 

Best brokers for beginners
Bottom line

You saw the details, now let's zoom out. Here are the best brokers for beginners in 2019:

Best brokers for beginners in 2019
Award
Best for beginners
Best social trading
Best discount broker
Best for funds
Best for options
Fees score4 stars4 stars5 stars2 stars4 stars
Account opening score5 stars5 stars5 stars5 stars4 stars
Deposit and withdrawal score3 stars4 stars3 stars4 stars2 stars
Markets and products score1 stars3 stars3 stars4 stars1 stars
Web platform score5 stars4 stars4 stars3 stars4 stars
Visit broker Visit broker Visit broker Visit broker Visit broker

Robinhood is our winner, the best broker for beginners in 2019. Only for US and Australian clients. For non-US clients, eToro is great, the runner up. It has a great social trading platform. Next is Degiro, the best discount broker. Swissquote is placed four, good for buy and hold, can be expensive. tastyworks is also on the bestlist. It has amazing video courses. 

All are considered safe, and a great choice. Pick the winner, or any runner-up and take the next step in your investment journey. Let us know what you think in the comment section.

Still unsure? Use the broker finder and find the best broker for you.

 

AUTHOR

Gergely Korpos
Gergely Korpos
Co-founder, CPO
Gergely's aim is to bring more clarity into personal investing. He has 10 years of experience in financial markets with GE Money, KPMG and MOL. He concluded thousands of trades as a commodity trader and financial portfolio manager
Follow Brokerchooser on Twitter

Share

Comments